Friday, March 13, 2020
Essay on Fables journals Essay on Fables journals Journal entries 1.) The wind and the sun fable shows that Gentle persuasion meaning is stronger than force. Don't force, rather persuade with light. In the fable the warm sun proves to the cold wind that persuasion is better than force when it came to making the man to remove his coat. Too often we underestimate the power of a touch, a smile, a kind word, a listening ear, an honest compliment, or the smallest act of caring for example: a smile takes only a moment, but could change somebody's mood for the whole day. A few words of encouragement or reassurance can stay with a person and continue to help them to overcome difficulties for many years. 2.) A wolf in sheepÃ¢â¬â¢s clothing. The moral of the story is that appearance can be very deceptive. I learned that oftentimes, some things are not what they always appear to be, if you pretend to be what you are not. You will get caught. I can definitely relate to this part of the fable. I used to be friend with someone who I thought was the nicest, kind, and friendliest person turned out to actually be sneaky, mean, and jealous and was really out to harm me. I really wonder what make them act that way, especially when you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t done any wrong things to them. 3.) The dog in the manger. I thought that it was really selfish of the dog for not letting the Ox eat the food. The food was useless to him so why not share or at least give it to someone thatÃ¢â¬â¢s in need of it. I never knew dogs were this even capable of doing such thing. I mean I see these kinds of act a lot the time but only by people. For example this afternoon while on my way back home. There was a driver on the
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Pros of technology in society - Term Paper Example However, human have normal tendencies of failures and shortcomings due to imperfection and limitations. Legal and ethical aspects of computer technology were not able to keep up with the rapid race of technology, that tend to create social, legal and ethical concerns that considered important aspects of our lives. Even then, this paper will discuss that technology being weighed against its cons, is still considerably a blessing to human society. Technology: A Blessing Introduction The worldÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyles have always undergone change. Largely because technology has sparked a continuous revolution that had a profound effect on human society. What was innovative in yesterday is redundant today, and what is trendy today will be obsolete tomorrow. However, rapid changes on technology have a marked impact in the business world, medical advances, education field, and social life, as well. Imagine having at your fingertips a collection of literature that would rival some of the worldÃ¢ â¬â¢s greatest libraries. Imagine millions of articles and similar items from thousands of books, magazines, newspapers, and other works that would fit on your desk. Students and educators benefited a lot. Even medical researchers can assimilate updated information at a glance. Imagine the comfort and convenience of electronic emails to business entities. Aside from the convenience and comfort, this advancement on technology creates a productive human society. But despite of these benefits on advancing technology, legal and ethical aspects of the internet are not able to keep pace with rapid revolution of technology that tend to create social, legal and ethical concerns that deals with Ã¢â¬Å"protection of intellectual property, prevention of fraud, protection of freedom of expression versus problems of defamation, protection of privacy, control of internet indecency versus free speech, and control of spammingÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Study Guide: Legal and Ethical AspectsÃ¢â¬ , n.d, intr oduction section, para.1). Likewise, an article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Social and ethical issues in computer scienceÃ¢â¬ (n.d), described computer technology as a double-edged sword because of the technological issues on potential dilemma of loss of privacy and theft besides its significant industrial revolution (p.2). Absolutely, there is no perfect technology. Since, the rapid computer revolution has overtaken the development of legal and ethical aspects that supposed to guide the application of computer innovations, there are only few clear rules that govern ethical computer behavior. Therefore, Computer and Information Ethics, or computer ethics, in a more specific term, is being designated as the branch of applied ethics that studies and analyzes social and ethical impacts of information and communication technology, and may also refer to kind of professional ethics wherein computer professionals apply standards of good practice within their profession (Computer and Information ethi cs, 2008). However, despite the risk that technology offers, at present, the main thrust of research` seems to focus on continuous improvement of technology that is already available. Most often, successive steps in technology are revolutionary and bring improvements that are hundreds of times better. Technical Issues According to Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2008), American scholar Norbert Wiener was the founder of the new branch of applied science of Ã¢â¬Å"cyberneticsÃ¢â¬ in the mid 1940s, which is now known to us as Ã¢â¬Å"
Sunday, February 9, 2020
An investigation of the risk and protective factors associated with high school graduation in the United States - Research Proposal Example Experts have estimated between 3.5 million and 6 million American students between ages 16 and 24 dropped out of schools for the last two years (Haskins, 2010). About 50 percent of minors fail to graduate with their class. African Americans tend to drop out higher than other minorities, which creates significant problems for them (Kogan et.al, 2005). For the class of 2013 84.1% of African Americans graduated, American Indian graduated 85.8%, Asian graduated at 93.8%, Hispanic at 85.1% and white at 93% according to Texas Education Agency 2012-2013. African Americans had the highest longitudinal dropout rate across racial/ethnic groups (9.9%), followed by Hispanics (8.2%). Asians had the lowest longitudinal dropout rate (3.0%), followed by White (3.5%) and multiracial students (4.4%). In the class of 2013, a total of 21,634 students dropped out in Texas. Females had a higher graduation rate of 90.3% compared to males with 85.9% (Texas Education Agency, 2013). Each state is experiencing the same trouble with a large percentage of students not graduating, so as a nation we are losing. In Texas, a total of 3,187 students dropped out of Grades 7-8, and 31,509 dropped out of Grades 9-12. The Grade 7-8 and Grade 9-12 dropout rates were 0.4 percent and 2.2 percent, respectively. The Grade 7-8 rate increased 0.1 percentage points from the 2011-12 school year, and the Grade 9-12 decreased 0.2 percentage points (TEA, 2013). In the school district that I work in which is Klein ISD, in 2010 Klein saw an increase in graduation rate. In May of 2010, 84.3% of the students statewide graduated while Klein ISD had a 92.6% completion rate. The student dropout rate has been an area of concern for many years in the United States. Programs are being implemented to help improve our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s battle with graduation. In 1984 House Bill 72 was passed to implement a system for collecting data on student dropouts. In 2009 House Bill 3 was passed to add postsecondary
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Education Sector Essay The typical Indian classroom was once characterized by students sitting through hour-long teacher monologues. Now, technology is making life easier for both students and educators. Schools are increasingly adopting digital teaching solutions to engage with a generation of pupils well-versed with the likes of PlayStations and iPads, and trying to make the classroom environment more inclusive and participatory. Take Smartclass from Educomp Solutions, one of the first Indian companies in this space. Smartclass is essentially a digital content library of curriculum-mapped, multimedia-rich, 3D content. It also enables teachers to quickly assess how much of a particular lesson students have been able to assimilate during the class. Once a topic is covered, the teacher gives the class a set of questions on a large screen. Each student then answers via a personal answering device or the smart assessment system. The teacher gets the scores right away and based on that, she repeats parts of the lesson that the students dont appear to have grasped. Technology makes the teaching-learning process very easy and interesting, says Harish Arora, a chemistry teacher at the Bal Bharti Public School in New Delhi who has been using Smartclass since 2004. For instance, [earlier] it would easily take me one full lecture to just draw an electromagnetic cell on the blackboard. Though I could explain the cell structure, there was no way I could have managed to show them how it really functions. This is where technology comes to our aid now I can show the students a 3D model of the cell and how it functions. Instead of wasting precious time drawing the diagram on the blackboard, I can invest it in building the conceptual clarity of my students. According to Abhinav Dhar, director for K-12 at Educomp Solutions, more than 12,000 schools across 560 districts in India have adopted Smartclass. More importantly, the number is growing at almost 20 schools a day. On average, in each of these schools eight classrooms are using Smartclass. When we launched Smartclass in 2004 as the first-ever digital classroom program, it was an uphill task convincing schools to adopt it, Dhar notes. These schools had not witnessed any change in a century. It is a completely different scenario now. Private schools across India today see [technology] as an imperative. A digital classroom is set to become the bare-minimum teaching accessory in schools, just like a blackboard is today. Dhar recalls that one major roadblock for Educomps proposition in the early days was on the price front. At US$4,000 (at the exchange rate of Rs. 50 to a U. S. dollar) per classroom, schools found the product very expensive. To get over this hurdle, Educomp quickly decided to make the initial investment and gave the schools an option to pay over a period of three to five years. The strategy worked. Enthused by the market response, in January Educomp launched an upgraded version the Smartclass Class Transformation System with more features, including simulations, mind maps, worksheets, web links, a diagram maker, graphic organizers and assessment tools. Huge Potential According to the Indian Education Sector Outlook Insights on Schooling Segment, a report released by New Delhibased research and consultancy firm Technopak Advisors in May, the total number of schools in India stands at 1. 3 million. Of these, private schools account for 20%. Educomps Dhar points out that only around 10% of the private schools have tapped the potential of multimedia classroom teaching whereas in government schools, it has barely made any inroads. The current market size for digitized school products in private schools is around US$500 million, says Enayet Kabir, associate director for education at Technopak. This is expected to grow at a CAGR [compound annual growth rate] of 20% to reach the over US$2 billion mark by 2020. However, the market potential then might get as big as US$4 billion [i. e.if the total population of private schools that could adopt multimedia actually adopt it. ] Apart from this, the current market size for ICT [information and communications technology] in government schools is US$750 million. We expect this to grow five times by 2020 due to the current low level of penetration in government schools. Kabir lists Educomp Solutions, Everonn Education, NIIT, Core Education Technologies, ILFS and Compucom as dominant players in this sector. New entrants include HCL Infosystems, Learn Next, Tata Interactive Systems, Mexus Education, S.Chand Harcourt (India) and iDiscoveri Education. Except for S. Chand Harcourt, which is a joint venture between S. Chand and US-based Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, all the others are Indian firms. A recent trend is that schools in tier two and tier three cities are increasingly adopting the latest technology. Rajesh Shethia, head of sales and marketing at Tata Interactive Systems, which launched Tata ClassEdge in early 2011 and has partnered up with more than 900 schools, says that more than half of the demand for digital classrooms is from tier two and tier three cities. According to Shethia, schools in these smaller cities realize that it is difficult for their students to get as much exposure as students from tier one cities. [So] they proactively subscribe to solutions such as ours, which richly benefit both teachers and students by simplifying the syllabus. Even parents want the best for their wards and are not averse to paying a little extra. They see value in these initiatives by schools to modernize the way teaching is imparted today. Making some back-of-the-envelope calculations Shethia adds: If we consider the top 100,000 private schools in India as the captive market, the potential is approximately two million classrooms of which currently just about 80,000 have been digitized. Srikanth B. Iyer, COO of Pearson Education Services, also sees tremendous potential in the smaller cities. Pearson provides end-to-end education solutions in the K-12 segment. Its multimedia tool, DigitALly, has been adopted in more than 3,000 private schools across India since 2004. DigitALly installations have been growing at three times the market for the past two years, Iyer says. Currently, more than 60% of our customers are from tier two and tier three towns, such as Barpeta (in the state of Assam), Sohagpur (in Madhya Pradesh) and Balia (in Uttar Pradesh). In order to make its offering attractive to the schools, Pearson has devised a monthly payment model under which a school pays around US$2 per student per month. As the price point is affordable, schools across all locations and fee structures find it viable to opt for our solution, Iyer notes. We focus on tier two and tier three towns and cities where penetration is relatively low and desire for adoption of technology is high. HCLs Digischool program, which launched about 18 months ago, has also made a strong beginning, with a client base of more than 2,500 schools. Partnering with State Governments Meanwhile, state governments are also giving a boost to the adoption of technology in schools. Edureach, a divison of Educomp, has partnered with 16 state governments and more than 30 education departments and boards in the country, covering over 36,000 government schools and reaching out to more than 10. 60 million students. Edureach leads the market with 27% of the total schools where ICT projects have been implemented, says Soumya Kanti, president of Edureach. We are looking [to add] 3,000 more schools this fiscal year and 20,000 to 25,000 additional schools in the next five years. As of now, Edureach has created digital learning content in more than 14 regional languages for these projects. In the northern state of Haryana, CORE Education and Technologies is implementing a US$59 million ICT project that aims to benefit 5 million students across 2,622 schools. Five of these schools will be developed as Smart schools. CORE is also implementing ICT projects in the states of Gujarat, Meghalaya, Punjab, Maharashtra and Nagaland. The scope of work in these projects ranges from implementation of computer-aided learning in schools, installing bio-metric devices to monitor attendance of teachers, and setting up computer hardware, software and other allied accessories and equipments. The task has not been an easy one, admits Anshul Sonak, president of CORE. There are several logistical issues. Delivery of equipment to rural areas is a big challenge in itself. There is lack of basic infrastructure either there are no classrooms or there are ones with no windows. Some schools dont even have toilets. Moreover, the power availability in these areas is often poor and we have had to deploy generator sets in many schools. But despite the challenges, educationists are optimistic. Rahul De, professor of quantitative methods and information systems area at the Indian Institute of Management in Bangalore (IIM-B) believes that ICT can have a huge impact on our education system. He points out that ICT can result in increasing the reach [of education] and in keeping the costs low. With increasing penetration of mobile phones and Internet kiosks, the potential is indeed immense, he adds. A study conducted by De in 2009 on the economic impact of free and open source software (FOSS) in India found that it resulted in significant cost savings. FOSS can play a huge role in education, De notes. In the state of Kerala, it has already had a huge impact in both saving costs and providing state-of-the-art access computing to students in government schools. FOSS has a huge number of packages for school students, many of which can be ported to local languages and used in schools. It is also helping disabled students in a big way, by enabling them to access digital resources using audio-visual aids. Edureachs Kanti adds that a study by the Centre for Multi-Disciplinary Development Research in Dharwad in Karnataka in 2006 revealed significant improvement in student enrolment and attendance, as well as a reduction of student dropouts due to ICT interventions. Yet another study conducted by the Xavier Institute of Management in Bhubaneswar in 2007 revealed that computer-aided education has improved the performance of children in subjects such as English, mathematics and science, which are taught through computers using multimedia-based educational content. All in a Tab In line with this increasing interest in technology for school education, there has been a rush of education-focused tablet computers in the market. The most high-profile of these has been Aakash, which was launched by Kapil Sibal, union minister for human resource development, in October 2011. The Aakash project is part of the ministrys National Mission on Education through Information Communication Technology (NME-ICT). It aims to eliminate digital illiteracy by distributing the Aakash tablets to students across India at subsidized rates. While the project itself has become mired in delays and controversy, it has generated a lot of awareness and interest among students around the educational tablet. Meanwhile, DataWind, the Canada-based firm that partnered with the union government for the Aakash project, has also launched UbiSlate7, the commercial version of Aakash. The opportunity for low-cost tablets in India is huge. In the next two years, it will exceed the size of the computer market in India i. e. 10 million units per year, says Suneet Singh Tuli, president and CEO of DataWind. In April, technology firm HCL Infosystems launched the MyEdu Tab, which is priced at around US$230 for the K-12 version. The device comes preloaded with educational applications and also books from the National Council of Educational Research and Training, a government organization. Anand Ekambaram, senior vice-president and head of learning at HCL Infosystems, is in the process of partnering with more than 30 educational institutes across India for MyEdu Tab. MyEdu Tab has content offline and can be accessed over the cloud. It allows students to learn at their own pace, Ekambaram notes. With a topic revision application and a self-assessment engine, students can evaluate their skills and knowledge on their own. Teachers can upload content, which can be accessed by students and parents for tasks such as homework and progress reports on their respective devices. The parent can monitor the progress of his or her child through the cloud-based ecosystem. Earlier this year, Micromax, a leading Indian handset manufacturer, also launched an edutainment device called Funbook. Micromax has also partnered with Pearson and Everonn to make available relevant content for students. Susha John, director and CEO at Everonn, was upbeat at the launch. Digital learning facilitated through tablets will revolutionize the educational space, John said. Everonn has invested in developing content and services targeted toward tablet audiences. To start with, we will offer our school curriculum-learning modules and at home live tuition products on the Funbook. Students can now have access to good teachers, educational content and a great learning experience anytime, anywhere. At Pearson, Max Gabriel, senior vice-president and chief technology officer, is focusing on K-12 content in English to begin with. We are sitting on a huge repository of existing content. Adding the right level of interactivity and richer experience will be our priority. Meanwhile, Educomp is gearing up to launch content that is device agnostic and can be run on any tablet. But even as schools in India are going through this transformation powered by technology, one key question is how big a role technology will play in the education sector. In an earlier interview with India [emailprotected], S. Sadagopan, founder-director at the International Institute of Information Technology in Bangalore, pointed out that there are four parts to learning lectures, library, laboratory and life noting that, Technology plays a critical role in all these. Kabir of Technopak adds another perspective. Despite numerous studies on the impact of ICT in education, the outcomes remain difficult to measure and open to much debate. It needs to be understood that technology is only an enabler and a force multiplier and cannot be treated as a panacea. We believe that impressive gains in teaching-learning outcomes are possible only through an integrated approach rather than a piecemeal intervention. Don Huesman, managing director of Whartons innovation group, recommends caution in considering potential investments in educational technologies. These are very exciting times for online and distance education technologies, but there are risks facing parents, educators and policy makers in evaluating the opportunities these new technologies, and their proponents, represent. Huesman points to the recent growth in high-quality, free, online educational courseware offered on websites like the Khan Academy and the Math Forum, as well as the work of the Open Learning Initiative in developing intelligent cognitive tutors and learning analytics. But such technologies, available from a global network of resources, only provide value when understood, chosen and integrated into a local educational community, he says. As an illustration, Huesman offers the example of cyber kiosks, provided in recent years by foundations at no cost to rural communities in India, exacerbating the gender divide in many traditional communities in which young women congregating at public cyber cafes, also frequented by young men, would be considered taboo. Interventions by governments and NGOs must be inclusive of local community concerns and aware of local political complications, Huesman notes. Globalization: Impact on Education by Satish Tandon, September 2005 The principal objective of education has been the development of the whole individual. The minimum level of education that was necessary to achieve this goal in the agrarian society was basic or primary and in the industrial age, secondary. In the present borderless information society, education needs to be able to respond to additional demands of a rapidly globalizing world by raising awareness of environment, peace, cultural and social diversity, increased competitiveness, and the concept of a global village. Such education is to a knowledge or information society what secondary education was to an industrial economy. Education prepares the individual to connect and live in harmony with the environment around him. Globalization has changed the size, nature and quality of that environment. The challenge for higher education, therefore, is to reform, create and develop systems that prepare the individual to work in a borderless economy and live in a global society. In other words, our educational institutions need to produce global citizens. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 allowed liberal democracies to claim victory for the capitalist system and contributed to increasing the pace of globalization that was already under way. As globalization gained momentum, market substituted political ideology as the dominant force guiding national and global policies. What followed next, therefore, does not seem so illogical. National governments everywhere partly in deference to the ascendancy of the market and partly in response to pressure from the private sector to expand their sphere of activities began to relinquish control over the delivery of social goods. Everything began to be viewed as a commodity that could be produced and delivered by the private sector in line with market forces and according to the principles of supply and demand. One by one water, electricity, postal services, health, and now education, have been turned into a commodity. The withdrawal of state from higher education has also been helped by economists, who have had an overly simple way of assessing the return on investments in higher education. The basic problem is that they have measured the return on education exclusively through wage differentials. With reference to someone who has no education, someone who has been to primary school, someone who has completed secondary school, and someone with a university degree, one can ask how much more each earns than the previous. These differences are then compared to the incremental amounts invested in their education to find the return. The results generally suggest that higher education yields a lower return than primary or secondary education and they have been used to justify the skewing of government budgets and development funds away from higher education institutions. The rate of return calculations are flawed because they do not take account of the full range of benefits to those who receive higher education. For example, higher education can enhance health, openness, peace, and social development, and at the same time reduce disease, bigotry and blind nationalism so the private benefits to the individual and to society are not just the direct labour productivity benefits, as the rate of return analysis suggests. Higher education confers benefits above and beyond enhancing the incomes of those who receive it. And many of these benefits take the form of public goods, such as the contribution of higher education to enterprise, leadership, governance, culture, and participatory democracy, and its potential for lifting the disadvantaged out of poverty. These are all vital building blocks for stronger economies and societies and all routes by which the benefit of investment in higher education multiplies throughout society. Liberal democracies have traditionally operated on the principle of separation of activities in the social sphere just as they have on the principle of separation of powers in the political sphere. The private sector had been given a relatively free hand in the production and delivery of economic goods while the state concentrated on the provision of healthcare, education and other infrastructure goods, also known as public goods. Globalization has changed all that. The rapid expansion of the influence of the private sector at the global level necessitated a corresponding expansion in their sphere of activities by diversifying into the production and delivery of public goods that had always been within the purview of the state. The takeover was swift and remarkable in the sense that the effort did not meet much resistance. One of the major consequences of the globalization of education has been commodification and the corporatization of institutions of higher learning. It is said that the for-profit education market in the United States is worth more than $500 billion in revenue for the involved corporates. More than one thousand state schools have been handed over to corporations to be run as businesses. But there is a fundamental problem with the way business models have been applied to the delivery of education and other public goods. Unthinking adoption of the private sector model prevents the development of a meaningful approach to management in the public services in general or to the social services in particular based on their distinctive purposes, conditions and objectives. There is another, more serious, problem with corporatization of education. Corporations operate on the principles of cost reduction and profit maximization. These require introducing standardization and the packaging of product in compact, measurable, byte-like, configuration. Applied to education, these approaches would possibly negate its basic fabric and purpose. Education has always encouraged and represents openness, inquiry, diversity, research and limitless learning. Corporatization of education would make it elitist the one provided by corporations for the masses and the poor who cannot afford going to the traditional institutions of learning, and the other for the rich and the affluent. The delivery of public goods and services is and should remain the primary responsibility of the state. Representative government may not be the ideal or perfect arrangement for governance but it represents the best that is available, and certainly more desirable than the private sector management of public services such as education. If the state relinquishes its control over education and education policy, we run the risk of diminishing it to the status of a packaged for-profit product which it is not. Openness, diversity, scholarship, research and disinterested learning will be its biggest victims.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Ginsberg, Allen. Howl and Other Poems. San Francisco: City Light Books, 2001. Capitalizing on Capitalizing in GinsbergÃ¢â¬â¢s Howl Ginsberg was a literary revolutionary as can be seen in his poetry. He pushed form and genre, theory and confrontation, confession and controversy right to the threshold and over the doorway of societal standards. In pushing and pushing, Ginsberg creates a new vocabulary for certain words by capitalizing them and giving them the significance of the Ã¢â¬Ëproper noun.Ã¢â¬â¢ By capitalizing the first letter of certain words, Ginsberg gives a solid identity to intangible things and redefines their role in a corrupted society that has destroyed the Ã¢â¬Å"best mindsÃ¢â¬ of his generation. Heaven, Terror, Time, Zen, Eternity, Capitalism, Absolute Reality and Space find their niche among the cities and events in section one. None of the words begin a sentence and some are used multiple times, giving them even more validity in their existence. Somewhere along the line the Ã¢â¬Å"best minds of [GinsbergÃ¢â¬â¢s] generationÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"bared their brains to Heaven,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"coweredÃ¢â¬ ¦listening to the Terror,Ã¢â¬ in the midst of Ã¢â¬Å"polesÃ¢â¬ ¦illuminating all the motionless world of TimeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"vanished into nowhere Zen,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"followed a brilliant Spaniard to converse about America and Eternity,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"burned cigarette holes in their arms protesting the narcotic tobacco haze of Capitalism,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"were run down by the drunken taxicabs of Absolute RealityÃ¢â¬ (9-13, 16). Despite GinsbergÃ¢â¬â¢s rants towards hysteria and chaos, there is some hope in the vulnerability of men who Ã¢â¬Å"bared their brains to Heaven.Ã¢â¬ There is a strong sense of redemption in the Eternity that is continuously referred to page to page. This also gives the minds some validity and a sense of ownership of... ...ey tie in with the Absolute Reality way of approaching the world. At the same time that he devalues Visions and Dreams, calling them, Ã¢â¬Å"the whole boatload of sensitive bullshit,Ã¢â¬ he also seems to feel that way because they have been devalued by America, rather than by be devalued in their own right (22). The few remaining capitalized words maintain that strand of hope that Ginsberg gave in section one. Even if America has devalued Dreams, Visions, and Epiphanies, they are still there for the taking in some sense. By the third section, Ginsberg has found some middle ground and solidarity. There is hope for the destroyed minds and corrupted America. Ginsberg attaches his own meaning to these words to set up the minds vs. society and provides some eternal hope that stands outside of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s domination and gives everyone some ultimate answers and consistency.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Chapter Two begins with the introduction of Thomas Gradgrind, Ã¢â¬Å"a man of realitiesSfacts and calculations. Ã¢â¬ He always introduces himself as Mr. Gradgrind and spends his time in constant cogitation. He is the Speaker, previously unnamed and he now takes it as his duty to educate the children (Ã¢â¬Å"little pitchers before himÃ¢â¬ ). He identifies a student, called Girl number twenty, who replies that her name is Sissy Jupe. Gradgrind corrects her that her name is Cecilia regardless of what her father calls her. Jupe's father is involved in a horse-riding circus and this is not respectableÃ¢â¬ ¹in Gradgrind's opinion. He advises Cecilia to refer to her father as a Ã¢â¬Å"farrierÃ¢â¬ (the person who shoes a horse) or perhaps, a Ã¢â¬Å"veterinary surgeon. Ã¢â¬ The lesson continues with Gradgrind's command: Ã¢â¬Å"Give me your definition of a horse. Ã¢â¬ While Girl number twenty knows what a horse is, she is unable to define one. Another child in the class, a boy called Bitzer, easily defines the animal by means of biological classifications (quadruped, graminivorous, etc. ). After this, the third gentleman steps forward. He is a government officer as well as a famous boxer and he is known for his alert belligerence. His job is to remove Ã¢â¬Å"fancyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"imaginationÃ¢â¬ from the minds of the children. They learn that it is nonsense to decorate a room with representations of horses because horses do not walk up and down the sides of rooms in reality. Sissy Jupe is a slow learner, among the group of stragglers who admit that they would dare to carpet a room with representations of flowers because she is Ã¢â¬Å"fondÃ¢â¬ of them. Sissy is taught that she must not Ã¢â¬Å"fancyÃ¢â¬ and that she is Ã¢â¬Å"to be in all things regulated and governed by fact. Ã¢â¬ After the gentleman finishes his speech, the schoolteacher, Mr. M'Choakumchild, begins his instruction. He has been trained in a schoolteacher-factory and has been conditioned to be dry, inflexible and uninspiringÃ¢â¬ ¹but full of hard facts. His primary job in these preparatory lessons is to find Ã¢â¬Å"FancyÃ¢â¬ in the minds of the children and eradicate it. Analysis: Ã¢â¬Å"Murdering the InnocentsÃ¢â¬ replaces the suspense of the previous chapter by establishing names and identities for the previously anonymous social roles that were presented earlier. As is to be expected from Dickens, the names of the characters are emblematic of their personality; usually, Dickens' haracters can be described as innocent, villainous or unaware of the moral dilemmas of the story that surrounds them. The characters' names are almost always an immediate indication of where the character fits on Dickens' moral spectrum. Thomas Gradgrind, Ã¢â¬Å"a man of realitiesÃ¢â¬ is a hard educator who grinds his students through a factory-like process, hoping to produce graduates (grads). Additionally, Gradgrind is a Ã¢â¬Å"doubting ThomasÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¹much like the Biblical apostle who resisted belief in the resurrection, this Thomas urges that students depend exclusively upon the evidence in sight. He dismisses faith, fancy, belief, emotion and trust at once. Mr. M'Choakumchild is plainly villainous and he resembles the sort of fantastic ogres he'd prefer students took no stock in. Cecilia (Sissy) Jupe is unlike the other characters in almost every possible way. While there are other female students, she is the only female identified thus far in the novel. Unlike the boy Ã¢â¬Å"BitzerÃ¢â¬ (who has the name of a horse), Sissy has a nickname and at least in this chapter, she is the lone embodiment of Ã¢â¬Å"fancyÃ¢â¬ at the same time that she is the single female presented as a contrast to the row of hardened mathematical men. Her character is, of course, a romanticized figure. Despite the political critique of Dickens' simplification and over-idealization of females and children (and girls, especially), Cecilia's character does have some depth that allows her development later in the novel. Her last name, Ã¢â¬Å"Jupe,Ã¢â¬ comes from the French word for Ã¢â¬Å"skirtsÃ¢â¬ and her first name, Cecilia, represents the sainted patroness of music. Especially as she is a member of a traveling circus, we can expect Cecilia to represent Ã¢â¬Å"ArtÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"FancyÃ¢â¬ in contrast to M'Choakumchild, one of 141 schoolmasters who Ã¢â¬Å"had been lately turned at the same time, in the same factory, on the same principles, like so many pianoforte legs. Besides the allusion to St. Cecilia, Dickens alludes to Morgiana, a character in the classic story Ã¢â¬ Ali Baba and the Forty ThievesÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¹one of the Arabian Nights tales. The reader should always note the irony in Dickens' allusions: while Dickens' characters argue against fanciful literature, Dickens' is relying upon it to compose his story. In this case, Dickens' simile presents M'Choakumchild's search for Ã¢â¬Å"the robber FancyÃ¢â¬ in terms of Morgiana's searching for (and hiding of) the thieves in Ã¢â¬Å"Ali Baba. The metaphor of the children as eager Ã¢â¬Å"vesselsÃ¢â¬ is made explicit when the Ã¢â¬Å"vesselsÃ¢â¬ before M'Choakumchild become the Ã¢â¬Å"jarsÃ¢â¬ before Morgiana. And the motif of robbers and villains is finalized when we remember that Ali Baba and the forty thieves were more hero than criminal. M'Choakumchild is labeled Ã¢â¬Å"gentlemanÃ¢â¬ but his intention to seek and destroy Ã¢â¬Å"the robber Fancy lurking withinÃ¢â¬ makes Ã¢â¬Å"the robber FancyÃ¢â¬ (childish imagination) a more noble personification. Instead, the teachers are the ones who seem criminal. The most important allusion of the chapter is the title: Ã¢â¬Å"Murdering the Innocents. Ã¢â¬ The reader should expect Dickens work to be full of Biblical and Christian allusions as he is writing to a largely sentimental popular audience. While the reference may be more inaccessible, erudite or unrecognizable for modern young readers, Dickens' 1854 British audience immediately saw the reference to King Herod. Soon after the birth of Christ, Herod fears for his throne and has all of the male babies in Bethlehem executed (in the hopes of murdering the Christ child). In literary circles, the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"murder of the innocentsÃ¢â¬ is exclusively used to describe this Biblical story. While the students are not literally danger (M'Choakumchild), their childish imagination has been targeted for annihilation. This completes the archetype of youth vs. age, and foreshadows that whoever is being targeted and singled out (Cecilia Jupe and her imagination) will ultimately escape this tyrant, but other innocents will be less fortunate (Bitzer). But we might expect as much from the same author who had written A Christmas Carol a decade before. The major theme of the chapter can be easily inferred from Dickens' description of Cecilia in the classroom. The Ã¢â¬Å"horsesÃ¢â¬ and carpeted Ã¢â¬Å"flowersÃ¢â¬ are all double symbols of her femininity and youth, but most important, Cecilia represents Art in opposition to mechanization. Dickens is not arguing against education, science or progress. He is arguing against a mode of factory-style, mind-numbing, grad-grinding production that takes the fun out of life. But even worse than the loss of Ã¢â¬Å"funÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"leisure,Ã¢â¬ Dickens is arguing that art requires an inquisitive and desiring mind. Especially as Dickens is known to have read and enjoyed Arabian Nights in his youth, we can see a bit of autobiography in his tender treatment of CeciliaÃ¢â¬ ¹perhaps if he had come under a Mr. M'Choakumchild, he would have proved incapable of becoming an artist. The life of modern mankind is presented very negatively and ignorantly by Matthew Arnold in the poem Dover Beach by the fact that religious faith evanesce with the Industrial Revolution. Arnold creates the image of the dark future for the people without unwavering faith or religion. Modern men are bastardised with the thought that new the Industrial Revolution will give them advantage over nature. This thought of gaining superiority made humans arrogant by which this appearance is broken by the reality of natureÃ¢â¬â¢s dominance. People also seem ignorant with the wishful thought. These pebbles which Ã¢â¬Ëthe waves draw back, and flingÃ¢â¬â¢ are completely powerless and are thrown around by the waves that move these Ã¢â¬Å"pebblesÃ¢â¬ at ease. Arnold uses pebbles as a metaphor for humans to show the inferiority in comparison to nature. The ignorance of humans is emphasised by the historical allusion to Peloponnesian War. In the dark, soldiers could not differentiate between their own army and the opponents; and so they killed their own soldiers. This is used by the poet to show the stupidity of modern man throwing away the religion which was everything to people before the Industrial Revolution; something to believe and rely on when people prayed. However, this old belief is thrown away and Arnold sees it as a very naive decision. The Industrial Revolution gave the source of arrogance and confidence which took place among the Western countries. This revolution was revolutionary itself; humans could mass produce, with improved quality, and at ease. These machineries became the limbs of human society. What came with the industrial revolution was the idea of realism. People could nearly produce goods to near-original standards, all thanks to improved technologies and science, and hence began to doubt the existence of God and supernatural beings. Realism contrasts the theology which is all about belief without questioning that God exists; and people believed it before the times of the machineries. It gave people hope and modesty under the mighty existence of God. However both hope and modesty disappeared with the Industrial Revolution which Arnold laments for. Bitterness is suggested when Arnold exclaims Ã¢â¬ËAh, loveÃ¢â¬â¢ to show that in this changing world, one can only rely on the partner, and be trustful and true. Sarcasm is used to describe the modern world as a Ã¢â¬Ëland of dreamsÃ¢â¬â¢ as there is no more hope for the world, as there is no more faith. As the poem proceeds, the transition of mood is noticeable as the grief of the loss of faith extends to a sense of resignation towards the end and having a sarcastic, sour approach to the ssue. The Ã¢â¬Ëtremulous cadence slowÃ¢â¬â¢ helps to convey the gradual process of the wane of doctrine which adds to the idea that the change of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives is almost unnoticeable. This gradual process hurts Arnold because people are caught unaware of the changes taking place and so do not think it is particularly wrong and sinful. Arnold presents his sorrow with the historical al lusion to Sophocles who, was a Greek playwright, had heard the sound of waves crashing as the Ã¢â¬Ëeternal note of sadnessÃ¢â¬â¢. The Ã¢â¬ËsadnessÃ¢â¬â¢ of the mankind turning away from religious beliefs is a parallel to the Ã¢â¬ËmelancholyÃ¢â¬ ¦ withdrawing roarÃ¢â¬ ¦retreatingÃ¢â¬â¢ of the waves. Before the development of science and technology, people had truly believed in the religion and thought that they were in total control of god. The metaphor Ã¢â¬ËSea of FaithÃ¢â¬â¢ which presents the religious faith people have, used to be Ã¢â¬Ëfull and round EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s shoreÃ¢â¬â¢ but now is Ã¢â¬ËretreatingÃ¢â¬ ¦ down the vast edgesÃ¢â¬â¢ which shows the decreasing religious beliefs. Arnold points out that, without faith, humans are Ã¢â¬ËnakedÃ¢â¬â¢ and have no protection and defence which reflects the vulnerability of man and their lives. With carefully chosen words, Arnold presents the uncertainty of the future of humans. The new industrialised world seems Ã¢â¬Å"so various, so beautiful, so newÃ¢â¬ but it is again a mere appearance. The reality is that this mechanic, stiff world will have Ã¢â¬Å"neither joy, nor love, nor lightÃ¢â¬ because this mechanics cannot feel love, hence no joy, and no vision as humans need love and the warm characteristics of humanity. It is thus deducible that the future will have no Ã¢â¬Å"certitude, nor peace, nor help for painÃ¢â¬ which are the essentialities of humans. Humans can only survive the harsh world when everybody believes and trusts each other, and this will be broken with the introduction of industrialisation. This change of the world will bring Ã¢â¬Å"confused alarms on struggle and flightÃ¢â¬ which creates an imagery of a Ã¢â¬Å"darkling plainÃ¢â¬ ; a dark vision for humans. Furthermore, the Ã¢â¬Å"turbidÃ¢â¬ ebb and flow shows the cloudy, uncertain future of Ã¢â¬Ëebb and flowÃ¢â¬â¢ which is the repetitive cycles of nature. Can humans only survive when they make harmony with the nature, and to go against the natural cycles can only mean extinction of humans. The Ã¢â¬ËcliffsÃ¢â¬â¢ of England Ã¢â¬ËgleamsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËglimmersÃ¢â¬â¢; gleams and glimmers have a sense of shakiness, precariousness and unknown which echoes the uncertain modern man. Also the alliteration of Ã¢â¬ËgÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËmÃ¢â¬â¢ creates a stuttering tone which adds to the idea of uncertainty. This imagery portrays the withering away of cliffs as a decline of religious beliefs and whatsmore, deterioration of the Earth itself as humans exploit resources out of the Earth which the modern development enabled men to do. The flaws of modernism and realism are expressed in this poem. The flow of the poem is cut off by uses of caesura which is a parallel to the imperfect modern world. Arnold gives a hint that modernization of the world will have some flaws which will inevitably bring loss of faith and result in loss of equilibrium. In science, there is no hope; everything is measured out and exact. Hence in the modern world reality there can be no hope as it looks vain. Again, Arnold sympathises with the loss of hope in reality. In a different sense, the calm, naturalistic description of a beach at night in the first stanza is the appearance which contrasts to the reality that is sad, unhopeful, Ã¢â¬ËretreatingÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËtremulousÃ¢â¬â¢. Human beings are inferior over nature and the spiritual beliefs as to an extent that people cannot control anything. The abandonment of the doctrine of religion with the help of the Industrial Revolution is only a vain act against the power overwhelming nature. Religion and faith should remain in humanity and ignoring it should result in the uncertainty and vulnerability of modern man.